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Medical Imaging Markets

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$3,400.00
Publication Date:
May 2017; Pages: 219
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Description


Medical Imaging Sample

The purpose of this TriMark Publications report is to describe the specific market segment of the diagnostics market sector called medical imaging. Medical imaging can be categorized into nine main modalities: X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine (NM), mammography and fluoroscopy. Globally, X-ray is the most frequently used imaging procedure with about 108 million X-ray exams per year. MRI is second with 26 million examinations per year. PET, SPECT, CT and nuclear medicine rank third with 30 million examinations per year. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and contrast agents are the sub-segments in medical imaging market that have gained significant growth in recent years. As a result of these medical imaging advancements, the multi-slice systems are generating large volumes of data, and this creates demand for data storage, 3-D visualization and analysis. As such, the global medical imaging industry is primed to experience significant growth through the next decade. This report surveys almost all of the companies known to be marketing, manufacturing or developing medical imaging equipment and supplies in the world. Each company is discussed in extensive depth with a section on its history, product line, business and marketing analysis, and a subjective commentary of the company's market position. Detailed tables and charts with sales forecasts and marketshare data are also included.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Overview 17
1.1 Statement of This Report 17
1.2 Scope of This Report 17
1.3 Methodology 19
1.4 Executive Summary 20
2. Medical Imaging Technologies: An Overview 22
2.1 X-Ray 22
2.1.1 Types of X-Rays 22
2.1.1.1 Applications of X-Ray (Radiography) 23
2.1.1.2 Reduced Payments for Analog X-Ray in the U.S. from 2017 24
2.2 Computed Radiography (CR) 25
2.3 Digital Radiography (DR) 27
2.3.1 Refinements in Digital Radiography Systems 28
2.3.2 Digital Detectors 28
2.3.3 Cassette-Based Solutions 29
2.3.4 Benefits of Digital Radiography 30
2.4 Fluoroscopy and C-Arms Systems 32
2.4.1 C-Arm Machines with Cost Price $10,000 to $30,000 32
2.4.2 C-Arm Machines with Cost Price $30,000 to $50,000 32
2.4.3 C-Arm Machines with Cost Price $50,000 to $70,000 33
2.4.4 C-Arm Machines with Cost Price $70,000 to $120,000 33
2.4.5 Points to be Considered While Buying a C-Arm System 33
2.4.5.1 Digital Detector vs. Image Intensifier 33
2.4.5.2 II Size 34
2.4.5.3 II Magnification Modes 34
2.4.5.4 Generator Size 34
2.4.5.5 Current Price Range 34
2.5 Mammography 34
2.5.1 Film/Screen Systems for Mammography 35
2.5.2 Full Field Digital Mammography 35
2.5.3 Clinical Applications of Mammography Systems 35
2.5.4 Components of a Mammography System 35
2.5.5 List Price of Select Mammography Systems 35
2.5.6 Points to be Considered While Buying a Mammography System 35
2.5.6.1 Detector Size 36
2.5.6.2 Image Resolution 36
2.5.6.3 Upgradability 36
2.6 Bone Densitometry Scanners 36
2.7 Computed Tomography (CT) 37
2.7.1 Types of CT Scanners 37
2.7.1.1 16 Slice CT Scanners 38
2.7.1.2 32 to 40 Slice CT Scanners 38
2.7.1.3 64 Slice CT Scanners 38
2.7.1.4 Wide-Bore CT Scanners 39
2.7.1.5 Greater Than 64 Slice CT Scanners 39
2.8 MRI Scanners 40
2.8.1 Types of MRI Scanners 40
2.8.1.1 High-Field MRI Scanners 40
2.8.1.2 Low-Field MRI Scanners 41
2.8.1.2 Low-Field MRI Scanners 41
2.8.1.3 Upright MRI Scanners 41
2.8.2 MRI Machines that Cost $150,000 or Less 41
2.8.3 MRI Machines That Cost $150,000 to $300,000 41
2.8.4 MRI Machines That Cost $250,000 to $400,000 42
2.8.5 MRI Machines That Cost >$400,00 42
2.8.6 Expected Lifetime of MRI System 42
2.9 Ultrasound Scanners 42
2.9.1 Types of Ultrasound 42
2.10 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) 44
2.10.1 Medical Application of SPECT Imaging 44
2.10.2 Leading SPECT System Manufacturers 45
2.10.3 Market Leading SPECT Systems 45
2.11 SPECT/CT 46
2.11.1 Clinical Applications of SPECT/CT 46
2.11.2 Market Leading SPECT/CT Systems 46
2.12 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 47
2.12.1 Clinical Applications of PET 48
2.13 PET/CT 48
2.13.1 Clinical Applications of PET/CT 48
2.14 Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) 49
2.14.1 Medical Image Workstation 50
2.14.2 Radiology Reporting Workstation 50
2.14.3 Mammography Workstation 50
2.14.4 Cardiology Workstation 51
3. Medical Indications Addressed by Imaging Modalities 52
3.1 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Oncology 52
3.2 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Cardiology 53
3.3 Relative Use of Medical Imaging Modalities in Neurology 54
3.4 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Musculosketal Disorders 55
4. Market Analysis 57
4.1 Summary of Medical Imaging Market 57
4.2 Medical Imaging Market by Geography 59
4.3 Top Ten Companies in Medical Imaging Equipment 60
4.4 Global Market for X-Ray Systems 63
4.4.1 Percent Share of X-rays by Product Type 64
4.4.2 Geographical Share of X-Ray Market 64
4.5 Global Market for Ultrasound by Technology 65
4.5.1 Geographic Share of Diagnostic Ultrasound Market 67
4.5.2 Percent Share of Ultrasound Market by Application 68
4.6 Global Market for MRI by Technology 69
4.6.1 Percent Share of MRI Geographical Markets 70
4.6.2 Percent Share of MRI Procedures by Application 71
4.6.3 Market Leaders in MRI Scanners 72
4.7 Global Market for CT Scanners 72
4.7.1 CT Scanners Market by Geography 74
4.8 Global Market for Nuclear Imaging Equipment 75
4.8.1 Nuclear Imaging Equipment Market Share by Geography 76
4.8.2 Market Leaders in Nuclear Imaging Equipment 76
4.8.3 Percent Share of Global SPECT Market by Indication 77
4.8.4 Percent Share of Worldwide PET Market by Indication 78
4.9 Global Market for Breast Imaging Equipment 78
4.9.1 Market Leaders in FFDM 80
4.9.2 Market Leaders in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) 80
4.10 Global Market for Fluoroscopy and Mobile C-Arms 81
4.10.1 Market Leaders in Fluoroscopy and Mobile C-Arm 82
4.11 Global Market for Medical Imaging Software 83
4.12 Global Market for PACS 84
4.12.1 PACS Market Share by Company 85
4.13 Global Market for Bone Densitometers 86
4.13.1 Percent Share of Bone Densitometer Market by Technology 87
4.13.2 Global Market for Bone Densitometry by Geography 88
4.14 Global Market for Refurbished Diagnostic Imaging Equipment Market 89
4.14.1 Global Market for Refurbished Medical Imaging Equipment by Technology 90
5. Medical Imaging Market Data from Select Countries 92
5.1 U.S. Market for Diagnostic Imaging Equipment 92
5.1.1 Average Cost of Imaging Procedures in the U.S. Hospital Setting 93
5.1.2 Average Expenses per Procedure by Modality in the U.S. Free-Standing Imaging Centers 94
5.1.3 Number of CT Procedures in the U.S. 95
5.1.3.1 U.S. Distribution of CT Sites by Site Type 96
5.1.3.2 Distribution of CT Scanners in the U.S. by Slice Count 97
5.1.3.3 CT Procedure Mix in the U.S. 98
5.1.4 Mammography in the U.S. 100
5.1.5 MRI in the U.S. 101
5.1.5.1 MRI Procedure Mix in the U.S. 102
5.1.5.2 Distribution of Installed Base of MRI Systems by Bore Type, by Site Type in the U.S. 104
5.1.5.3 Distribution of Installed Base of MRI Systems by Magnet Field Strength in the U.S. 105
5.1.5.4 MRI Installed Base in the U.S. by Field Strength 107
5.1.6 Number of Clinical PET Scans, Sites and Units in the U.S. 108
5.1.6.1 Clinical PET Scan Trends in the U.S. 109
5.1.6.2 PET Clinical Patient Scan Mix in the U.S. 110
5.1.6.3 PET/CT and PET Oncology Study Mix in the U.S. 111
5.1.6.4 PET/CT Installed Base in the U.S. by Number of CT Slices 112
5.2 Medical Imaging in Canada 113
5.2.1 Computed Tomography (CT) 113
5.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 113
5.2.3 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 113
5.2.4 Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) 114
5.2.5 Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) 114
5.2.6 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) 114
5.2.7 Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) 114
5.2.8 Leading Medical Imaging Companies in Canadian Market 115
5.2.9 Growth Rate for Medical Imaging Equipment in Canada 116
5.2.10 Market Share for Major Imaging Devices in Canada 117
5.3 European Market for Medical Imaging in Select Countries 118
5.3.1 Installed Bases of Major Medical Imaging Modalities in Europe 119
5.3.2 Age Profile of CT Scanners in Major European Healthcare Markets 120
5.3.2.1 Age Profiles of CT Scanners in Select Region/Country 122
5.3.2.2 Upgraded and Replaced CT Units in Europe 123
5.3.2.3 Density of CT Units in Select Region/Country 124
5.3.3 Age Profile of MRI in Select Region/Country 125
5.3.3.1 Density of MRI Units in Select Region/Country 126
5.3.4 Profile of X-Ray Angiography Units in Major European Healthcare Markets 127
5.3.4.1 Age Profile of X-Ray Angiography in Select Region/Country 128
5.3.4.2 Density of X-Ray Angiography in Select Region/Country 129
5.3.5 Age Profile of PET Scanners in E.U. 130
5.3.5.1 Age Profile of PET in Select Region/Country 131
5.3.5.2 Density of PET in Select Markets 132
5.4 Chinese Market for Medical Imaging Equipment 133
5.5 Indian X-Ray Market 134
5.5.1 Indian Digital Radiography Market (DR) 135
5.5.2 Indian Ultrasound Market 136
5.5.2.1 Indian Color Doppler Equipment Market 137
5.5.2.2 Indian Color Ultrasound Market 138
5.5.3 Indian CT Scanners Market 139
5.5.4 Indian MRI Market 140
5.5.5 Indian SPECT and PET Market 141
6. Company Profiles 142
6.1 Siemens Healthcare 142
6.1.1 Angiography Products 142
6.1.1.1 Artis One 142
6.1.1.2 Artis Q 142
6.1.1.3 Artis Zeego 142
6.1.1.4 Artis Pheno 143
6.1.1.5 Artis Zee 143
6.1.1.6 Artis QZen 143
6.1.1.7 MIYABI Angio-CT 143
6.1.2 Mobile C-Arms from Siemens 143
6.1.2.1 Cios Alpha 143
6.1.2.2 Cios Fusion 143
6.1.2.3 Cios Connect 143
6.1.2.4 Cios Select 144
6.1.2.5 Arcadis Orbic 3D 144
6.1.2.6 Siremobil Compact L 144
6.1.3 CT Scanners from Siemens 144
6.1.3.1 SOMATOM Force 144
6.1.3.2 SOMATOM Drive 144
6.1.3.3 SoMATOM Definition Flash 144
6.1.3.4 SOMATOM Definition Edge 145
6.1.3.5 SOMATOM Definition AS 145
6.1.3.6 SOMATOM Perspective 145
6.1.3.7 SOMATOM go.Up 145
6.1.3.8 SOMATOM go.Now 145
6.1.3.10 SOMATOM Scope 145
6.1.3.11 SOMATOM Emotion 145
6.1.3.12 SOMATOM Spirit 146
6.1.4 Remote Controlled Fluoroscopy Systems 146
6.1.4.1 Luminos dRF Max 146
6.1.4.2 Luminos Fusion 146
6.1.4.3 Luminos Select 146
6.1.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems from Siemens 146
6.1.5.1 MAGNETOM Aera 146
6.1.5.2 MAGNETOM Amira 146
6.1.5.3 MAGNETOM Sempra 146
6.1.5.4 MAGNETOM Espree eco 147
6.1.5.5 MAGNETOM Avanto eco 147
6.1.5.6 MAGNETOM Essenza 147
6.1.5.7 MAGNETOM Vida 147
6.1.5.8 MAGNETOM Skyra 147
6.1.5.9 MAGNETOM Prisma 147
6.1.5.10 MAGNETOM Verio 147
6.1.5.11 MAGNETOM Spectra 148
6.1.6 Mammography Systems from Siemens 148
6.1.6.1 Mammomat Inspiration 148
6.1.6.2 Mammomat Fusion 148
6.1.7 Molecular Imaging Systems from Siemens 148
6.1.7.1 Biograph mCT Flow PET/CT 148
6.1.7.2 Biograph mCT 148
6.1.7.3 Biograph Horizon 148
6.1.7.3 Biograph mMR 149
6.1.7.4 Symbia Intevo 149
6.1.7.5 Symbia Intevo Excel 149
6.1.7.6 Symbia T Series 149
6.1.8 Ultrasound Systems from Siemens 149
6.1.8.1 ACUSON SC2000 149
6.1.8.2 ACUSON X700 149
6.1.8.3 ACUSON X300 PE 150
6.1.8.4 ACUSON X150 150
6.1.8.5 ACUSON P300 150
6.1.8.6 ACUSON S2000 150
6.1.8.7 ACUSON S1000 150
6.1.8.8 ACUSON S3000 150
6.2 GE Healthcare 151
6.2.1 GE’s Bone Health Imaging Products 151
6.2.1.1 Lunar iDXA 151
6.2.1.2 Prodigy 151
6.2.1.3 Achilles 151
6.2.2 Computed Tomography from GE 151
6.2.2.1 Revolution EVO 151
6.2.2.2 Revolution CT 152
6.2.2.3 Optima CT660 152
6.2.2.4 Optima CT540 152
6.2.2.5 Optima CT660 FREEdom Edition 152
6.2.2.6 Optima CT 580 W 152
6.2.3 MRI from GE Healthcare 152
6.2.3.1 SIGNA Architect 152
6.2.3.2 SIGNA Pioneer 153
6.2.3.3 Discovery MR750w GEM 70 cm 153
6.2.3.4 Discovery MR750 60 cm 153
6.2.3.5 SIGNA PET/MR 60 cm 153
6.2.4 Mammography Equipment from GE Healthcare 153
6.2.4.1 Senographe Pristina 153
6.2.5 Nuclear Imaging Systems from GE Healthcare 153
6.2.5.1 Discovery MI 153
6.2.5.2 Discovery IQ 154
6.2.5.3 Discovery MI DR 154
6.2.5.4 Discovery NM CT 670 154
6.2.5.5 Optima NM CT 640 154
6.2.5.6 Infinia Hawkeye 4 154
6.2.6 Select Radiography Systems from GE Healthcare 154
6.2.6.1 Proteus XR/f 154
6.2.6.2 Discovery XR656 PLUS 154
6.2.6.3 Definium 5000 155
6.2.7 Select Fluoroscopy Systems from GE Healthcare 155
6.2.7.1 Precision 600FP 155
6.2.8 Select Ultrasound Systems from GE Healthcare 155
6.2.8.1 Voluson E10 155
6.2.8.2 LOGIQ E9 XDclear 2.0 155
6.2.8.3 LOGIQ F8 155
6.2.8.4 Vivid E95 155
6.3 Philips Healthcare 156
6.3.1 CT Devices from Philips 156
6.3.1.1 iQon Spectral CT 156
6.3.1.2 iCT Family 156
6.3.1.3 Ingenuity 156
6.3.1.4 Brilliance CT Big Bore 157
6.3.1.5 MX16 EVO 157
6.3.2 MRI from Philips Healthcare 157
6.3.2.1 Ingenia 1.5T 157
6.3.2.2 Ingenia 1.5T CX 158
6.3.2.3 Ingenia 1.5T S 158
6.3.2.4 Ingenia 3.0T 158
6.3.3 Diagnostic Radiography/Fluoroscopy from Philips 158
6.3.3.1 Juno DRF 158
6.3.3.2 EasyDiagnost Eleva DRF 158
6.3.4 Mammography Systems from Philips 159
6.3.4.1 MicroDose SI 159
6.3.4.2 IntelliSpace Breast 159
6.3.5 Digital Radiography Systems from Philips 159
6.3.5.1 DigitalDiagnost 159
6.3.5.2 MobileDiagnost 159
6.3.5.3 DuraDiagnost 159
6.3.6 Ultrasound Systems from Philips 159
6.3.6.1 EPIQ 7 159
6.3.6.2 EPIQ 5 160
6.3.6.3 Affinity 70 160
6.3.6.4 Affinity 50 160
6.3.6.5 CX 50 160
6.3.6.6 CX 50 xMatrix 160
6.3.6.7 ClearVue 850 160
6.3.6.8 Lumify 161
6.3.6.9 ClearVue 350 161
6.4 Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation 161
6.4.1 Computed Tomography (CT) from Toshiba 161
6.4.1.1 Aquilion ONE/Genesis Edition 161
6.4.1.2 Aquilion ONE VISION Edition 161
6.4.1.3 Aquilion ONE 161
6.4.1.4 Aquilion PRIME 162
6.4.1.5 Aquilion CXL Series 162
6.4.1.6 Aquilion RXL Edition 162
6.4.1.7 Aquilion Lightning 162
6.4.1.8 Aquilion LB 162
6.4.1.9 Alexion Advance Edition 163
6.4.1.10 Alexion 163
6.4.1.11 Alexion Access Edition 163
6.4.2 MRI from Toshiba 163
6.4.2.1 Vantage Titan 3T 163
6.4.2.2 Vantage Titan 163
6.4.2.3 Vantage Elan 163
6.4.3 Ultrasound from Toshiba 164
6.4.3.1 Aplio i-Series 164
6.4.3.2 Aplio 500 164
6.4.3.3 Aplio 400 164
6.4.3.4 Aplio 300 164
6.4.3.5 Xario 164
6.4.4 Fluoroscopy Systems from Toshiba 164
6.4.4.1 Ultimax-iFPD Version 164
6.4.4.2 Ultimax-i I.I. Version 165
6.4.4.3 ZEXIRA I.I. Version 165
6.4.4.4 Kalare 165
6.4.4.5 WINSCOPE Plessart EX8 165
6.4.4.6 WINSCOPE Plessart VIVO 165
6.4.5 Radiography Systems from Toshiba 165
6.4.5.1 RADREX-I FPD System 165
6.4.5.2 RADREX 165
6.4.6 Mammography from Toshiba 166
6.4.6.1 MGU-1000A 166
6.4.7 Mobile C-Arm from Toshiba 166
6.4.7.1 Surginix (SXT-2000A) 166
6.4.7.2 Clearscope 1000 166
6.4.8 Nuclear Imaging from Toshiba 166
6.4.8.1 Celesteion 166
6.5 Fujifilm Corporation 167
6.5.1 Computed Radiography Systems from Fujifilm 167
6.5.1.1 FCR Prima II 167
6.5.1.2 FCR Prima T2 167
6.5.1.3 FCR Prima T 167
6.5.1.4 FCR Capsula X 167
6.5.1.5 FCR Capsula XLII 167
6.5.1.6 FCR XG5000 Plus 168
6.5.1.7 FCR Profect CS Plus 168
6.5.2 Digital Radiography from Fujifilm 168
6.5.2.1 FDR AcSelerate 168
6.5.2.2 FDR D-EVO Suite 168
6.5.2.3 FDR Visionary Suite 168
6.5.2.4 FDR Smart f 168
6.5.3 Digital Mammography System from Fujifilm 169
6.5.3.1 AMULET Innovality 169
6.5.3.2 AMULET f/s 169
6.5.3.3 AMULET 169
6.5.4 Ultrasound Systems from Fujifilm 169
6.5.4.1 FC1 169
6.5.4.2 SonoSite SII 169
6.5.4.3 SonoSite Edge II 170
6.5.4.4 SonoSite iViz 170
6.5.4.5 SonoSite X-Porte 170
6.5.4.6 SonoSite NanoMaxx 170
6.5.4.7 SonoSite M-Turbo 170
6.5.4.8 Vevo MD 170
6.6 Carestream Health Inc. 171
6.6.1 DR Systems from Carestream 171
6.6.1.1 DRX-Evolution Plus 171
6.6.1.2 DRX-1 System 171
6.6.1.3 DRX-Ascend 171
6.6.1.4 DRX – Mobile Retrofit 171
6.6.1.5 DRX-Revolution 172
6.6.1.6 DRX-Transportable 172
6.6.2 CR Systems from Carestream 172
6.6.2.1 DirectView CR System 172
6.6.2.2 Vita Flex CR System 172
6.6.2.3 Vita CR System 172
6.6.3 Cone Beam CT Solutions from Carestream 173
6.6.3.1 Carestream OnSight 3D Extremity System 173
6.6.3.2 CS 9300 System 173
6.6.3.3 CS 8100 3D System 173
6.6.4 Fluoroscopy from Carestream 173
6.6.4.1 DRX-Excel 173
6.6.4.2 DRX-Excel Plus 173
6.6.5 Analog System from Carestream 174
6.6.5.1 DRX-Ascend System 174
6.6.5.2 Motion Mobile X-Ray System 174
6.6.6 Ultrasound Systems from Carestream 174
6.6.6.1 Touch Prime 174
6.6.6.2 Touch Prime XE 174
6.6.7 Digital Mammography Systems from Carestream 175
6.6.7.1 CARESTREAM DRX-1 System 175
6.6.7.2 CARESTREAM DRX Mobile Retrofit Kits 175
6.6.7.3 CARESTREAM DRX-Revolution Mobile X-Ray System 175
6.6.7.4 CARESTREAM DRX-Evolution Plus 175
6.6.7.4 CARESTREAM DRX-Ascend System 176
6.7 Hitachi Medical Systems America Inc. 176
6.7.1 MRI Systems from Hitachi 176
6.7.1.1 Oasis 1.2T 176
6.7.1.2 Echelon Oval 1.5T 176
6.7.1.3 Echelon 1.5T 176
6.7.2 CT Systems from Hitachi 177
6.7.2.1 SCENARIA 128-Slice 177
6.7.2.2 SUPRIA 16-Slice 177
6.7.3 Ultrasound Systems from Hitachi 177
6.7.3.1 ARIETTA 70 177
6.7.3.2 ProSound Alpha 7 177
6.7.3.3 Noblus 177
6.7.3.4 Profound F37 178
6.7.3.5 SOFIA 178
6.7.3.6 Profound F75 178
6.7.4 X-Ray Systems 178
6.7.4.1 DX-D 100 178
6.7.4.2 DX-D 300 179
6.7.4.3 DR 400 179
6.7.7.4 DX-D 600 179
6.8 Konica Minolta Medical Imaging U.S.A. Inc. 180
6.8.1 Konica’s Digital Radiography Products 180
6.8.1.1 AeroDR HD Detector 180
6.8.1.2 KDR AU System Advanced U-Arm 180
6.8.1.3 AeroRemote 180
6.8.1.4 AeroDR LT 180
6.8.1.5 AeroDR XE 180
6.8.1.6 AeroDR Flat Panel Detector 181
6.8.2 Ultrasound Systems from Konica 181
6.8.2.1 J5 Ultrasound 181
6.8.2.2 Sonimage HS 1 181
6.8.2.3 Sonimage P3 181
6.8.3 Computed Radiography from Konica 181
6.8.3.1 Xpress CR 181
6.8.3.2 Sigma II CS-7S CR 181
6.8.3.3 NanoCR W/CS-7 181
6.8.3.4 ImagePilot 182
6.8.3.5 ImagePilot Sigma 182
6.8.4 Konica’s Digital Mammography 182
6.8.4.1 Xpress CR – Contact Mammography 182
6.8.4.2 REGIUS 110 HQ 182
6.9 Shimadzu Corporation 182
6.9.1 Angiography Systems from Shimadzu 182
6.9.1.1 Trinias F12/C12 Mix Package 182
6.9.1.2 BRANSIST alexa F12/C12 183
6.9.2 Fluoroscopy from Shimadzu 183
6.9.2.1 Sonialvision G4 183
6.9.2.2 Sonialvision Safire 17 183
6.9.2.3 Sonialvision Versa 100R/100 183
6.9.2.4 Flexavision F3 183
6.9.2.5 Fluorospeed 300 183
6.9.3 Mobile C-Arm from Shimadzu 183
6.9.3.1 Opescope Acteno 183
6.9.3.2 WHA-200 Opesscope Activo 184
6.9.4 Radiography from Shimadzu 184
6.9.4.1 RADspeed Pro EDGE 184
6.9.4.2 RADspeed Pro V4 184
6.9.4.3 RADspeed Pro MC 184
6.9.4.4 RADspeed Pro MF 184
6.9.4.5 RADspeed fit 184
6.9.4.6 Ezy-Rad Pro ETX Version 184
6.9.5 Mobile X-Rays from Shimadzu 185
6.9.5.1 MobileDaRt Evolution MX7 Version 185
6.9.5.2 MobileDaRt Evolution EPX Version 185
6.9.5.3 MOBILEART eco 185
6.10 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. 185
6.10.1 Oncology Software from Varian Medical 185
6.10.1.1 360 Oncology 185
6.10.1.2 Eclipse Treatment Planning System 185
6.10.1.3 RapidPlan Knowledge-Based Planning Software 186
6.10.1.4 VariSeed LDR Treatment Planning System 186
6.10.1.5 Vitesse HDR Treatment Planning System 186
6.10.1.6 Acuros BV 186
6.10.1.7 ARIA Oncology Information System 186
6.10.1.8 Velocity 186
6.10.1.9 Fullscale Oncology IT Solution 186
6.10.1.10 BrachyVision Brachytherapy Treatment Planning System 187

APPENDIX

Appendix 1: Basic Principles of CT Scanning 188
Appendix 1.1: Field of Use 190
Appendix 1.2: Technical Considerations 190
Appendix 1.3: Total Scan Time and Scan Length 191
Appendix 1.3.1: Clinical Requirements 191
Appendix 1.3.2: Gantry Rotation Time 191
Appendix 1.3.3: Detector Array Length 191
Appendix 1.3.4: X-Ray Tube 194
Appendix 1.3.5: Image Quality 194
Appendix 1.3.6: Spatial Resolution 195
Appendix 1.3.7: Contrast Resolution 197
Appendix 1.3.8: Temporal Resolution 197
Appendix 1.3.9: Image Artifacts 199
Appendix 1.3.10: Ionizing Radiation and Patient Dose 200
Appendix 1.3.11: Over-Beaming 201
Appendix 1.3.12: Over-Ranging in Helical Scanning 202
Appendix 1.3.13: Automatic Tube Current Control in CT 203
Appendix 1.3.14: Cardiac Scanning 203
Appendix 1.4: Installation 204
Appendix 1.4.1: Scanner Location 204
Appendix 1.4.2: Room Requirements 204
Appendix 1.4.3: Ancillary Equipment 205
Appendix 1.4.4: Patient Workflow 205
Appendix 1.4.5: Staffing 206
Appendix 1.4.6: Cardiac Procedures 207
Appendix 1.4.7: Information Workflow 207
Appendix 2: A Buyer’s Guide for MRI 209
Appendix 2.1: Key Purchasing Factors to be Considered 209
Appendix 2.1.1: Technical Features 209
Appendix 2.1.1.1: Strength of the Main Magnetic Field 209
Appendix 2.1.1.2: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) 209
Appendix 2.1.1.3: Field Uniformity and Stability 209
Appendix 2.1.1.4: Shim Coils 210
Appendix 2.1.1.5: Radiofrequency System 210
Appendix 2.1.1.6: Gradient Coil Systems 210
Appendix 2.1.1.7: Parallel Imaging Techniques 210
Appendix 2.1.2: Ease of Use and Safety 210
Appendix 2.1.2.1: Patient Comfort 210
Appendix 2.1.2.2: Safety 210
Appendix 2.1.2.3: Costs 211
Appendix 2.1.2.4: Accessories 211
Appendix 2.1.2.5: Maintenance 211
Appendix 3: X-Ray Usage and Safety 212
Appendix 3.1: Radiation 212
Appendix 3.1.1: Radiation in Medical Imaging 213
Appendix 3.2: Ionizing Radiation: Basic Concepts 216
Appendix 3.2.1: Action of Ionizing Radiation 216
Appendix 3.2.2: Regulatory Agencies 216
Appendix 3.2.3: Ionizing Radiation: Quantification, Exposure and Risk 217
Appendix 3.2.4: Proper Protection from Ionizing Radiation 218
Appendix 3.2.5: Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Pregnant Women 219
Appendix 3.3: Alternative Non-Radiation Imaging Modalities 221
Appendix 3.3.1: Ultrasound Imaging 221
Appendix 3.3.2: Magnetic Resonance Imaging 222

INDEX OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Percent Application of X-Rays by Indication 23
Figure 2.2: DR and CR Fixed General X-Ray Systems Installed in U.S. Hospitals, 2010-2016 24
Figure 3.1: Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Oncology 53
Figure 3.2: Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Cardiology 54
Figure 3.3: Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Neurology 55
Figure 3.4: Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Musculoskeletal Disorders 56
Figure 4.1: Percent Share of Medical Imaging Market by Imaging Modalities, 2016 58
Figure 4.2: Global Market for Medical Imaging Equipment, 2016-2022 59
Figure 4.3: Percent Share of Medical Imaging Market by Geography, 2016 60
Figure 4.4: Top Ten Companies based on Diagnostic Imaging Market Share (%), 2016-2022 62
Figure 4.5: Global Market for X-Ray Systems, 2016-2022 63
Figure 4.6: Percent Share of X-Ray by Product Type, 2016 64
Figure 4.7: Geographical Share of X-Ray Market, 2016 65
Figure 4.8: Global Market for Ultrasound Systems, 2016-2022 66
Figure 4.9: Global Market for Diagnostic Ultrasound by Geography, 2016 67
Figure 4.10: Percent Share of Ultrasound Market by Application, 2016 68
Figure 4.11: Global Market for MRI Systems, 2016-2022 69
Figure 4.12: Global Market for MRI by Geography, 2016 70
Figure 4.13: Percent Share of MRI Procedures by Application, 2016 71
Figure 4.14: Market Leaders in MRI 72
Figure 4.15: Global CT Scanners Market, 2016-2022 73
Figure 4.16: Geographical Share of CT Scanners Market, 2016 74
Figure 4.17: Global Market for Nuclear Imaging Equipment (SPECT & PET), 2016-2022 75
Figure 4.18: Nuclear Imaging Equipment Market Share by Geography, 2016 76
Figure 4.19: Market Leaders in Nuclear Imaging Equipment, 2016 77
Figure 4.20: Percent Share of Global SPECT Market by Indication, 2016 77
Figure 4.21: Percent Share of Worldwide PET Market by Indication, 2016 78
Figure 4.22: Global Market for Breast Imaging Equipment, 2016-2022 79
Figure 4.23: Market Leaders in Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems 80
Figure 4.24: Market Leaders in DBT Systems, 2016 81
Figure 4.25: Global Market for Fluoroscopy and Mobile C-Arms, 2016-2022 82
Figure 4.26: Market Leaders in Mobile C-Arm, 2016 83
Figure 4.27: Global Market for Medical Imaging Software, 2016-2022 84
Figure 4.28: Global Market for PACS, 2016-2012 85
Figure 4.29: PACS Market Share by Company, 2016 86
Figure 4.30: Global Market for Bone Densitometers, 2016-2022 87
Figure 4.31: Percent Share of Bone Densitometer Market by Technology, 2016 87
Figure 4.32: Global Market for Bone Densitometers by Geography, 2016 88
Figure 4.33: Global Market for Refurbished Imaging Equipment, 2016-2022 89
Figure 4.34: Percent Share of Refurbished Imaging Equipment Market by Technology, 2016 91
Figure 5.1: U.S. Market for Medical Imaging Equipment, 2016-2022 92
Figure 5.2: Average Expenses per Procedure by Modality in the U.S. Hospital Setting 93
Figure 5.3: Average Expenses per Procedure by Modality in the U.S. Free-Standing Imaging Centers 94
Figure 5.4: CT Procedure Volumes in the U.S. Hospital and Non-Hospital Sites, 2005-2015 95
Figure 5.5: Distribution of CT Sites and Procedures by Site Type, 2015 96
Figure 5.6: Distribution of CT Scanners in the U.S. by Number of Slices as of 2015 97
Figure 5.7: Distribution of CT Procedures in the U.S. and Sites, by Procedure Category, 2015 100
Figure 5.8: Type of Mammography Units Installed in the U.S. as of 2015 101
Figure 5.9: Total MRI Procedure Volume in the U.S., 2005-2015 102
Figure 5.10: MRI Procedure Mix in the U.S., 2015 103
Figure 5.11: Distribution of Installed Base of MRI Systems by Bore Type, by Site Type, 2015 104
Figure 5.12: Distribution of Installed Base of MRI Systems by Magnet Field Strength in the U.S., 2015 105
Figure 5.13: MRI Installed Base in the U.S. by Field Strength as of 2015 107
Figure 5.14: Distribution of PET Imaging Sites and PET Scans by Site Type in the U.S., 2015 108
Figure 5.15: Estimated Clinical PET Scans by Site Type, 2005-2015 109
Figure 5.16: Clinical Application Mix for PET/CT and PET Scans in the U.S., 2015 110
Figure 5.17: Distribution of PET Oncology Scans by Cancer Type in the U.S., 2015 111
Figure 5.18: Percent Distribution of PET/CT Installed Base by Number of CT slices, 2015 112
Figure 5.19: Canadian Medical Imaging Market Share by Company, 2016 115
Figure 5.20: Canadian Medical Imaging Growth Rate by Segment, 2016 116
Figure 5.21: Canadian Market Share for Major Imaging Equipment, 2016 118
Figure 5.22: European Market for Medical Imaging in Select Countries, 2016-2022 119
Figure 5.23: Installed Bases of Major Medical Imaging Modalities in Europe 120
Figure 5.24: Age Profile of CT Scanners in Major European Healthcare Markets as of 2015 121
Figure 5.25: Age Profiles of CT Scanners in Select Region/Country, 2015 122
Figure 5.26: Upgraded and Replaced CT Units in Europe as of 2015 123
Figure 5.27: Density of CT Units in Select Region/Country as of 2015 124
Figure 5.28: Age Profile of MRI in Europe as of 2015 125
Figure 5.29: Density of MRI Units in Select Region/Country as of 2015 126
Figure 5.30: Age Profile of X-Ray Angiography Units in Major European Healthcare Markets as of 2015 127
Figure 5.31: Age Profile of X-Ray Angiography in Select Region/Country as of 2015 128
Figure 5.32: Density of X-Ray Angiography Units in Select Region/Country as of 2015 129
Figure 5.33: Age Profile of PET Units in Major European Healthcare Markets as of 2015 130
Figure 5.34: Age Profile of PET in Select Region/Country as of 2015 131
Figure 5.35: Density of PET Units by Select Region/Country as of 2015 132
Figure 5.36: Chinese Medical Imaging Equipment Market by Technology, 2016-2022 133
Figure 5.37: Indian X-Ray Market, 2016 134
Figure 5.38: Indian Digital Radiography (DR) Market, 2016 135
Figure 5.39: Indian Ultrasound Market by Volume and Value, 2015 136
Figure 5.40: Indian Color Doppler Equipment Market, 2015 137
Figure 5.41: Indian Color Ultrasound Equipment Market, 2016 138
Figure 5.42: Indian CT Scanners Market, 2015 139
Figure 5.43: Indian Diagnostic MRI Market, 2015 140
Figure 5.44: Indian SPECT & PET Market, 2016 141
Figure A. 1.1: Schematic Diagram of CT Scanner “End View” 188
Figure A. 1.2: Schematic Diagram of CT Scanner “Side View” in Helical Acquisition Mode 188
Figure A. 1.3: Multi-slice CT Scanner X-Ray Beam and Detectors Approximately to Scale 189
Figure A. 1.4: Multi-slice CT Scanner X-Ray Beam and Detectors, Schematic 189
Figure A. 1.5: Technical Advances in CT Scanner Technology 190
Figure A. 1.6: Effect of Detector Array on Number of Rotations and Scan Time 192
Figure A. 1.7: Example of 16 Slice Detector with Reduced Coverage for Fine Slices 192
Figure A. 1.8: Examples of Fixed and Variable Z-Axis Detector Arrays 193
Figure A. 1.9: CT Perfusion with “Jog” or “Shuttle” Scan 194
Figure A. 1.10: Test Objects with Line Pairs of Varying Frequencies for Assessment of Scan Plane Spatial Resolution 195
Figure A. 1.11: Diagram of Methods for Improving Sampling Density (a) Quarter Detector Shift, (b) Flying Focal Spot 196
Figure A. 1.12: Reduction of Effective Detector Size with Attenuating Grid 196
Figure A. 1.13: Test Object for Contrast Resolution Measurements 197
Figure A. 1.14: Principle of Multi-Segment Reconstruction in Retrospectively Gated CCTA 198
Figure A. 1.15: Schematic Diagram of a Dual Source CT Scanner 198
Figure A. 1.16: CT Scan Through Shoulders, Demonstrating Photon Starvation Artifacts 199
Figure A. 1.18: PMMA Body Phantom used for Measurement of CT Doses 200
Figure A. 1.18: Illustration of CTDIvol Representing Average Dose at Central Slice Position of 100 mm Irradiation Length 201
Figure A. 1.19: Reduced Influence of Over-Beaming for Larger Z-Axis Beam Collimations 201
Figure A. 1.20: Increased Contribution from Over-Ranging with Wider X-Ray Collimation 202
Figure A. 1.21: Dynamic Collimation to Reduce Dose at the Extremities of a Scan 202
Figure A. 1.22: Automatic Tube Current Control in CT 203
Figure A. 1.23: EEG-Gated Tube Current Modulation 203
Figure A. 1.24: The Stages of a CT Scan 206
Figure A. 1.25: Examples of Allocations of Specific Roles to Assist Patient Workflow 206
Figure A. 1.26: Information and Image Flow 207

INDEX OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Important Features of Different Imaging Modalities 22
Table 2.2: Percent Applications of X-Rays by Indication 23
Table 2.3: Medicare Reimbursement Cuts to X-Ray by Technology 24
Table 2.4: Features of Some of the Largest Selling CR Systems 26
Table 2.5: DR Systems in the Market 26
Table 2.6: Detector Types in Selected DR Systems 28
Table 2.7: Features of Cassette-Based DR Solutions from Different Vendors 29
Table 2.8: Select DR Systems 30
Table 2.9: 16 Slice CT Scanners 38
Table 2.10: 32 to 40 Slice CT Scanners 38
Table 2.11: 64 Slice CT Scanners 39
Table 2.12: Wide Bore CT Scanners 39
Table 2.13: Greater Than 64 Slice CT Scanners 40
Table 2.14: Examples of SPECT/CT Systems 47
Table 2.15: Select PET/CT Systems 49
Table 2.16: Select PACS Systems 49
Table 4.1: Global Medical Imaging Equipment Market by Technologies, 2016-2022 58
Table 4.2: Medical Imaging Equipment Market by Geography, 2016-2022 59
Table 4.3: Top Ten Companies based on Diagnostic Imaging Market Share (%), 2016 and 2022 62
Table 4.4: Global Market for X-Ray Systems by Technology, 2016-2022 63
Table 4.5: Global Market for Ultrasound by Technology, 2016-2022 66
Table 4.6: Global Market for MRI by Technology, 2016-2022 69
Table 4.7: Global CT Scanners Market by Technology, 2016-2022 73
Table 4.8: Global CT Scanners Market by Geography, 2016-2022 74
Table 4.9: Global Market for Nuclear Imaging Equipment (SPECT & PET), 2016-2022 75
Table 4.10: Global Market for Breast Imaging Equipment, 2016-2022 79
Table 4.11: Global Market for Fluoroscopy and Mobile C-Arms, 2016-2022 82
Table 4.12: Global Market for Medical Imaging Software, 2016-2022 83
Table 4.13: Global Market for PACS by Imaging Modality, 2016-2022 84
Table 4.14: Global Market for Bone Densitometers by Technology, 2016-2022 86
Table 4.15: Global Market for Bone Densitometers by Geography, 2016-2022 88
Table 4.16: Global Market for Refurbished Diagnostic Imaging Equipment Market by Geography, 2016-2022 89
Table 4.17: Global Market for Refurbished Medical Imaging Equipment by Technology, 2016-2022 91
Table 5.1: U.S. Market for Medical Imaging by Technology, 2016-2022 92
Table 5.2: Average Expenses per Procedure by Modality in the U.S. Hospital Setting 93
Table 5.3: Average Expenses per Procedure by Modality in the U.S. Free-Standing Imaging Centers 94
Table 5.4: CT Procedure Volumes in the U.S. Hospital and Non-Hospital Sites, 2005-2015 95
Table 5.5: Distribution of CT Sites and Procedures by Site Type, 2015 96
Table 5.6: Distribution of CT Scanners in the U.S. by Number of Slices as of 2015 97
Table 5.7: Distribution of CT Procedures in the U.S. and Sites, by Procedure Category, 2015 98
Table 5.8: Type of Mammography Unit Installed in the U.S. as of 2015 100
Table 5.9: Total MRI Procedure Volume in the U.S., 2005-2015 102
Table 5.10: MRI Procedure Mix in the U.S., 2015 103
Table 5.11: Distribution of Installed Base of MRI Systems by Bore Type, by Site Type, 2015 104
Table 5.12: Distribution of Installed Base of MRI Systems by Magnet Field Strength in the U.S., 2015 105
Table 5.13: MRI Installed Base in the U.S. by Field Strength as of 2015 107
Table 5.14: Distribution of PET Imaging Sites and PET Scans by Site Type in the U.S., 2015 108
Table 5.15: Estimated Clinical PET Scans by Site Type, 2005-2015 109
Table 5.16: Clinical Application Mix for PET/CT and PET Scans in the U.S., 2015 110
Table 5.17: Distribution of PET Oncology Scans by Cancer Type in the U.S., 2015 111
Table 5.18: Percent Distribution of PET/CT Installed Base by Number of CT slices, 2015 112
Table 5.19: Canadian Medical Imaging Market Share by Company, 2016 115
Table 5.20: Canadian Medical Imaging Growth Rate by Segment, 2016 116
Table 5.21: Canadian Market Share for Major Imaging Equipment, 2016 118
Table 5.22: European Market for Medical Imaging in Select Countries, 2016-2022 118
Table 5.23: Installed Bases of Major Medical Imaging Modalities in Europe 119
Table 5.24: Age Profile of CT Scanners in Major European Healthcare Markets as of 2015 121
Table 5.25: Age Profiles of CT Scanners in Select Region/Country, 2015 122
Table 5.26: Upgraded and Replaced CT Units in Europe as of 2015 123
Table 5.27: Density of CT Units in Select Region/Country as of 2015 124
Table 5.28: Age Profile of MRI in Europe as of 2015 125
Table 5.29: Density of MRI Units in Select Region/Country as of 2015 126
Table 5.30: Age Profile of X-Ray Angiography Units in Major European Healthcare Markets as of 2015 127
Table 5.31: Age Profile of X-Ray Angiography in Select Region/Country as of 2015 128
Table 5.32: Density of X-Ray Angiography Units in Select Region/Country as of 2015 129
Table 5.33: Age Profile of PET Modalities in E.U. as of 2015 130
Table 5.34: Age Profile of PET in Select Region/Country as of 2015 131
Table 5.35: Density of PET Units by Select Region/Country as of 2015 132
Table 5.36: Chinese Market for Medical Imaging, 2016-2022 133
Table 5.37: Indian X-Ray Market, 2016 134
Table 5.38: Indian Digital Radiography (DR) Market, 2016 135
Table 5.39: Indian Ultrasound Market by Volume and Value, 2015 136
Table 5.40: Indian Color Doppler Equipment Market, 2015 137
Table 5.41: Leading Vendors in Indian Ultrasound Market, 2015 138
Table 5.42: Indian Color Ultrasound Equipment Market, 2016 138
Table 5.43: Indian CT Scanners Market, 2015 139
Table 5.44: Indian Diagnostic MRI Market, 2015 140
Table 5.45: Indian SPECT & PET Market, 2016 141
Table A. 2.1: i.5 T and 3.0 T Models Evaluated by PASA 209
Table A. 2.2: Key Technical Specifications for 1.5 T Equipment 211
Table A. 2.3: Key Technical Specifications for 3 T Equipment 211
Table A. 3.1: Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Sources of Radiation 212
Table A. 3.2: Common Sources of Radiation 217
Table A. 3.3: Radiation Dose for Various Imaging Procedures Compared to Natural Radiation 218
Table A. 3.4: Proper Protection from Ionizing Radiation 218
Table A. 3.5: Radiation-Induced Malformations from Fetal Exposure 220
Table A. 3.6: Estimated Radiation Dose Received by Fetus during Imaging Procedures 220

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