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Ultrasound Markets

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Publication Date:
June 2011; Pages: 248
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Ultrasound represents a low-cost and efficacious imaging technology that continues to help radiologists and others collect significant clinical data about patients. Ultrasound is appropriately suited to many patients. No other imaging modality gives patients a real-time viewing at their anatomy or inspires discussions with physicians about their symptoms and the evidence of disease on the monitor. Ultrasound is radiation-free, patient-friendly and less-expensive. The adoption of this modality by all categories of hospitals and other healthcare institutions has given rise to new market opportunities for manufacturers of ultrasound systems and components suppliers. Ultrasound imaging systems have become conventional in almost all the offices of cardiologists, obstetricians, surgeons and urologists among other specialists. New uses, such as the applications of ultrasound in dispensing emergency medicine, along with new hand-held portable systems are helping to further propel the medical marketplace for the technology. This TriMark Publications report surveys almost all of the companies known to be marketing, manufacturing or developing ultrasound equipment and supplies in the world. Each company is discussed in extensive depth with a section on its history, product line, business and marketing analysis, and a subjective commentary of the company's market position. Detailed tables and charts with sales forecasts and market data are also included.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Overview 13
1.1 Statement of Report 13
1.2 Scope of the Report 13
1.3 Methodology 15
1.4 Executive Summary 16

2. Ultrasound Systems: An Overview 18
2.1 Portable Ultrasound 18
2.2 Compact Ultrasound 18
2.2.1 Expanding Clinical Roles for Compact Ultrasound Systems 19
2.2.1.1 Aloka 19
2.2.1.2 Biosound Esaote 19
2.2.1.3 GE Healthcare 20
2.2.1.4 Hitachi Medical Systems 20
2.2.1.5 Medison 20
2.2.1.6 Philips Medical Systems 20
2.2.1.7 Siemens Medical Solutions 21
2.2.1.8 SonoSite 21
2.2.1.9 TeraRecon 21
2.2.1.10 Terason 22
2.2.1.11 Toshiba America Medical Systems 22
2.2.1.12 Zonare Medical Systems 22
2.3 Cost of Compact Ultrasound Imaging Systems 22
2.4 Accuracy of Compact Ultrasound Systems 22
2.5 Ease of Use of Compact Ultrasound Systems 22
2.6 Multi-Site Imaging of Compact Ultrasound Imaging Systems 23
2.7 Choosing the Right Ultrasound Machine 23
2.7.1 Features to be Considered 23
2.7.2 Technical Specifications 23
2.7.3 Stationary vs. Mobile 23
2.7.4 Financing 23
2.7.5 New vs. Refurbished 24
2.7.6 Warranty/Service Plans 24
2.7.7 Finding the Best Ultrasound Machine 24
2.8 The Working of Ultrasound Systems 25
2.8.1 The Ultrasound Machine 25
2.9 Components of Ultrasound Imaging Systems 26
2.9.1 Transducers 27
2.9.2 High-Voltage Multiplexing 27
2.9.3 High-Voltage Transmitters 28
2.9.4 Image-Path Receivers 28
2.9.5 Tx/Rx Switch 29
2.9.6 Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) 29
2.9.7 Variable-Gain Amplifier (VGA) 29
2.9.8 Anti-Alias Filter (AAF) and ADC 30
2.9.9 Digital Beamformers 30
2.9.10 Beamformed Digital-Signal Processing 30
2.9.11 Color-Flow Processing 30
2.9.12 Display Processing 31
2.10 Different Types of Ultrasound 31
2.10.1 3D/4D Ultrasound 32
2.10.1.1 Equipment Design 32
2.10.1.2 Purchase Considerations 32
2.10.1.3 Acquisition Approaches 33
2.10.1.4 Display Strategies 33
2.11 Endoscopic Ultrasound 33
2.12 Handheld Ultrasound Imaging Device 34
2.13 Diagnosis of Possible Diseases with Ultrasound Imaging Units 34
2.14 Major Uses of Ultrasound 35
2.14.1 Ultrasound Scanners by Specialty 36
2.14.1.1 Ultrasound Imaging in Gynecology/Obstetric 36
2.14.1.2 Fetal Testing (Nuchal Translucency Testing, 11-14 Weeks) 37
2.14.1.3 4D Ultrasound (26 Weeks) 38
2.14.2 Ultrasound Imaging in Urology 38
2.14.2.1 Bladder Ultrasound 38
2.14.2.2 Kidney Ultrasound 39
2.14.2.3 Scrotum Ultrasound 39
2.14.2.4 Prostrate Ultrasound and Biopsy 39
2.14.3 Ultrasound for Musculoskeletal Disorders 40
2.14.4 Ultrasound Imaging in Interventional Radiology 40
2.14.5 Ultrasound Imaging for Breast Examination 40
2.14.6 Echocardiography 41
2.14.7 Sonoelastography 41
2.14.8 Ultrasound Therapy for Cosmetic Purposes 42
2.14.8.1 Focused Ultrasound Body Contouring 43
2.14.8.2 VASER Liposuction 43
2.14.9 Ultrasound Brow Lift 44
2.14.10 3D Ultrasound Imaging in Pregnancy 44
2.14.11 Abdominal Ultrasound 45
2.14.12 Cardiac Ultrasound 45
2.14.13 Portable Ultrasound 45
2.15 Limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging 46

3. The Standards for Ultrasound Equipment 47
3.1 Selection of Equipment 47
3.2 General Considerations for All Equipment 47
3.2.1 Clinical Applications for which the Equipment will be Used 47
3.2.2 Workload in Each Application 47
3.2.3 Transducer/Probe Required 47
3.2.4 Scanning Capabilities Required 48
3.2.5 Physical Features 49
3.2.6 Measurement/Analysis Facility 49
3.2.7 Ultrasound Settings 49
3.2.8 Annotation and Documentation 49
3.2.8.1 Display and annotation 49
3.2.8.2 Documentation 49
3.2.9 Safety, Compliance and Quality Assurance 50
3.2.10 Equipment Trials and Training 50
3.2.11 Equipment Review and Replacement 50
3.2.12 Requirements for Abdominal Ultrasound 50
3.2.13 General and Sub Specialized Requirements for Radiological Ultrasound Scanners 51
3.2.14 Requirements for Small Parts Ultrasound 52
3.2.14.1 Transducer 52
3.2.14.2 B-mode Imaging 52
3.2.14.3 Doppler Facility 53
3.2.15 Specific Requirements for Scrotal Ultrasound 53
3.2.16 Specific Requirements for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound 53
3.2.17 Specific Requirements for Breast Ultrasound 53
3.2.18 Specific Requirements for Vascular Ultrasound 53
3.2.18.1 Transducer 54
3.2.18.2 B-Mode 54
3.2.18.3 Color Flow 54
3.2.18.4 Spectral Doppler 55
3.2.19 Specific Requirements for Extracranial Disease (Carotid Scanning) 55
3.2.20 Specific Requirements for Deep Vein Thrombosis 55
3.2.21 Specific Requirements for Venous Incompetence 55
3.2.22 Specific Requirements for Renal Artery Stenosis 55
3.2.23 Venous Access for Placement of Central Lines 55

4. Ultrasound Machine Reviews 56
4.1 Acuson Cypress 56
4.2 Acuson Sequoia 57
4.3 Philips iE33 58
4.4 GE Vivid I Portable 59
4.5 GE Vivid 7 60
4.6 Mindray M5 Portable 61
4.7 Comparison of Cardiac Ultrasound Machines 61
4.8 Comparison of Vascular Ultrasound Machines 62
4.9 Comparison of OB/GYN Ultrasound Machines 62
4.10 Comparison of Radiology Ultrasound Machines 63
4.11 Comparison of Shared Service Ultrasound 64

5. Trends in Ultrasound Imaging 65
5.1 Growth of Fetal Ultrasound 65
5.2 Growth of Ultrasound in Cardiology 65
5.3 Growth of Portable Ultrasound 66
5.4 New Technologies Available 66
5.4.1 Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound 67
5.4.2 Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) 67
5.4.3 Changing Trends in Breast Imaging 68
5.4.4 Automated Breast Volume Scanning (ABVS) 68
5.4.5 Changing Concepts in Prostate Imaging 68
5.4.6 Musculoskeletal Ultrasound System 69
5.4.7 High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) 69
5.4.8 Volume Imaging 70
5.4.9 Applications for Volumetric Ultrasound 70
5.4.9.1 Fetal Imaging 70
5.4.9.2 Gynecologic Imaging 70
5.4.9.3 Breast Imaging 70
5.4.9.4 Cardiac Applications 70
5.4.9.5 Interventional Procedures 70
5.4.9.6 Abdominal Imaging 71
5.4.9.7 Musculoskeletal Imaging 71
5.4.9.8 Prostate Imaging 71
5.4.10 Three Dimensional Power Doppler Imaging 71
5.4.11 Fusion Imaging 71
5.4.12 Intraoperative Ultrasound (IOUS) 72
5.4.13 Pocket Ultrasound 72

6. Market Analysis 73
6.1 Global Healthcare Spending 73
6.2 U.S. Healthcare Spending 74
6.3 Healthcare Spending in Canada 76
6.4 Healthcare Spending in Western Europe 79
6.4.1 Healthcare Spending in France 79
6.4.2 Healthcare Spending in Germany 80
6.4.3 Healthcare Spending in U.K. 81
6.5 Healthcare Spending in Eastern Europe 82
6.5.1 Healthcare Spending in Russia 83
6.5.2 Healthcare Spending in Czech Republic 83
6.5.3 Healthcare Spending in Hungary 84
6.6 Healthcare Spending in China 84
6.7 Healthcare Spending in India 85
6.8 Global Outlook for Medical Imaging Equipment 86
6.8.1 Global Medical Imaging Market Share by Modality 86
6.8.2 Global Market for General X-rays 87
6.8.3 Global Market for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 88
6.8.4 Global Market for Computed Tomography (CT) 90

7. Global Ultrasound Market 92
7.1 Steady Recovery in Global Ultrasound Market 92
7.2 A Possible Sweeping Change in Competition for Ultrasound Market 92
7.3 Ultrasound Market Drivers 93
7.4 Ultrasound: The Second Most Popular Imaging Modality 93
7.5 Global Ultrasound Market Leaders 94
7.6 Ultrasound: Share in Developed Markets 95
7.7 Ultrasound: Share in Emerging Markets 96
7.8 Global Market for Ultrasound Systems, Accessories and Services 97
7.9 Global Market for Ultrasound Imaging Equipment 98
7.10 Global Market for Portable Ultrasound Systems 99
7.10.1 Technology Growth Drivers for Compact Ultrasound 100
7.10.1.1 Computer Speed 100
7.10.1.2 Hardware Miniaturization 100
7.10.1.3 Broadband Wireless Connectivity 100
7.10.1.4 Ultrasound Guided Procedures 100
7.10.1.5 Point of Care Ultrasound 100
7.10.1.6 Software-Based Ultrasound 101
7.11 North American Medical Ultrasound Imaging Market 101
7.11.1 Proliferation of Opportunities for Ultrasound 101
7.11.2 Escalating Rate of Imaging Utilization in Emergency Rooms 102
7.11.3 Ultrasound: The Second Largest Utilized Modality in the U.S. 103
7.11.4 Future of U.S. Portable Ultrasound Market 104
7.11.5 Strength of GE Healthcare in the U.S. Ultrasound Market 104
7.11.6 U.S. Market for Ultrasound Imaging 105
7.11.7 U.S. Market for Portable Ultrasound 105
7.11.8 U.S. Ultrasound Reimbursement Information 106
7.11.8.1 Hospital Payment 106
7.11.8.2 Physician Payment 106
7.11.8.3 Documentation Requirements 106
7.11.8.4 Coding Information (Hospitals) 107
7.11.8.5 Coding and Payment Information (Physicians) 107
7.12 Ultrasound Utilization in Canada 108
7.12.1 Diagnostic Imaging Equipment Market in Canada 109
7.12.2 Market Share of Ultrasound in Canada 109
7.13 European Market for Ultrasound 110
7.13.1 New Technologies in European Ultrasound Imaging Market 111
7.14 Ultrasound Market in China 112
7.14.1 Assessment of Ultrasound Market in China 113
7.14.2 Opportunities for Ultrasound in China 114
7.14.2.1 Black' White Ultrasound 114
7.14.2.2 Color Ultrasound 115
7.14.3 Hospital Demographics in China 115
7.14.4 Ultrasound Market Share in China 116
7.14.5 Challenges for Foreign Suppliers 117
7.14.6 Utilization of Ultrasound in China 118
7.15 Appetite for Medical Imaging in India 119
7.15.1 Demand for Quality Healthcare in India 120
7.15.2 Indian Opportunities 120
7.15.2.1 Indian Opportunities for CT Scanners 120
7.15.2.2 Indian Opportunities for Ultrasound 121
7.15.2.3 Indian Opportunities for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 121
7.15.3 Ultrasound Market in India 121
7.15.4 Future of Indian Ultrasound Equipment Market 124
7.15.5 Major Players in Indian Market 125
7.15.5.1 Fourth Dimension 127
7.15.5.2 Portability 127
7.16 Contrast Media in Medical Imaging 130
7.16.1 Contrast Media in Ultrasound Imaging 131
7.16.1.1 Contrast Techniques 131
7.16.1.2 Contrast-enhanced Doppler imaging 131
7.16.1.3 Contrast harmonic imaging 131
7.16.1.4 Intermittent imaging 131
7.16.1.5 Vascular Ultrasound 132
7.16.1.6 Echocardiology 132
7.16.1.7 Other Applications 132
7.16.2 Marketing Challenges for Ultrasound Contrast Media 132
7.16.3 Contrasting Situation in Contrast Media Utilization for Ultrasound 133
7.16.3.1 FDA Issues 133
7.16.3.2 New Effort 134
7.16.3.3 Broadening Contrast Use 134
7.16.3.4 Potential Cost Savings 134
7.16.4 The Economics of Contrast Agents 134
7.16.4.1 Economics 135
7.16.4.2 Negotiation Strategies 135
7.16.5 CT Contrast Agents 136
7.16.5.1 CT Contrast Manufacturers 136
7.16.5.2 Costs of CT Contrast Agents 137
7.16.6 MRI Contrast Agents 137
7.16.6.1 Primary MRI Contrast Vendors 138
7.16.6.2 Costs of MRI Contrast Agents 138
7.16.7 Ultrasound Contrast Agents 138
7.16.7.1 Primary Ultrasound Contrast Agent Vendors 139
7.16.7.2 Costs of Ultrasound Contrast Agents 139
7.16.8 Global Market for Contrast Agents in Medical Imaging 139
7.17 Ultrasound PACS 140
7.17.1 PACS and Movement 140
7.17.2 Comparison with Priors 141
7.17.3 Variation of PACS by Specialty 141
7.17.4 Improved Workflow 141
7.17.5 Improved Solutions 142
7.18 Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS): General 142
7.18.1 PACS Adoption 142
7.18.2 Global Market for PACS 143
7.18.3 PACS Installations in the U.S. Hospitals 144
7.18.4 PACS Modality Installations 146
7.18.5 PACS Vendor Market Share 147
7.18.6 PACS Image Distribution 148
7.18.7 European Market for PACS 150
7.18.8 PACS in India 151
7.18.8.1 Market Insight 151

8. Selected Company Profiles 153
8.1 Aloka 153
8.1.1 ProSound Alpha 10 153
8.1.2 ProSound Alpha 7 154
8.1.3 ProSound Alpha 6 154
8.1.4 ProSound Alpha 5SX 155
8.1.5 ProSound 3500SX 156
8.1.6 SSD-900 156
8.1.7 ProSound C3CV 156
8.1.8 Transducers 157
8.2 Analogic Corporation 158
8.2.1 Flex Focus 700 158
8.2.2 Flex Focus 400 159
8.2.3 Flex Focus 400 Anesthesia 159
8.2.4 Flex Focus 200 160
8.2.5 Flex Focus 200 Surgery 160
8.3 Biosound Esaote 161
8.3.1 MyLab 70XV 161
8.3.2 MyLab 50XV 161
8.3.3 MyLab 40 162
8.3.4 MyLab 30 Gold 162
8.3.5 MyLab 25 Gold 163
8.3.6 MyLab 25 164
8.3.7 MyLab 20 Plus 164
8.3.8 MyLab 15 165
8.3.9 MyLabOne 165
8.3.10 MyLabFive 166
8.3.11 Aquila 167
8.3.12 MyLab Desk 167
8.4 Echosens 168
8.4.1 FibroScan 502 Touch 168
8.4.2 FibroScan 502 168
8.4.3 Fibroscan 402 169
8.5 EDAP TMS 169
8.5.1 Ablatherm 169
8.5.2 ESWL Sonolith 169
8.6 GE Healthcare 170
8.6.1 Logiq P3 170
8.6.2 Logiq E9 170
8.6.3 Logiq 9 171
8.6.4 Logiq e 171
8.6.5 Logiq Book XP Enhanced 172
8.6.6 Logiq 5 172
8.6.7 Logiq 3 173
8.6.8 Logiq 200 173
8.6.9 Logiq 7 174
8.6.10 Logiq A5 174
8.6.11 Logiq P5 175
8.6.12 Logiq P6 175
8.6.13 ViewPoint OB/GYN 176
8.6.14 ViewPoint Radiology 176
8.6.15 ViewPoint Vascular 177
8.6.16 Vscan 177
8.6.17 Vivid i 178
8.6.18 Venue 40 178
8.6.19 Voluson E8 179
8.6.20 Voluson e 179
8.6.21 Voluson 730 180
8.6.22 Voluson i 180
8.6.23 Voluson E6 181
8.6.24 Voluson S8 181
8.7 Hitachi Medical Systems America, Inc. 182
8.7.1 HI VISION Preirus 182
8.7.2 HI VISION 900 182
8.7.3 HI VISION 8500 183
8.7.4 HI VISION 6500 183
8.7.5 HI VISION 5500 183
8.8 Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc. 184
8.8.1 Definity 184
8.9 Medison America, Inc. 184
8.9.1 Accuvix V20 184
8.9.2 Accuvix XG 185
8.9.3 Accuvix V10 185
8.9.4 SonoAce X8 186
8.9.5 SonoAce R7 186
8.9.6 SonoAce X6 187
8.9.7 MySono U5 187
8.9.8 SonoAce R5 188
8.9.9 SonoAce R3 189
8.9.10 SonoAce X4 189
8.10 Mindray 190
8.10.1 Selected Ultrasound Systems from Mindray 190
8.10.1.1 DC-7 190
8.10.1.2 M7 191
8.10.1.3 M5 191
8.10.1.4 DP-9900Plus 192
8.10.1.5 DP-50 192
8.10.1.6 DP-6900 193
8.11 Siemens Medical Solutions 193
8.11.1 Selected Ultrasound Systems from Siemens 194
8.11.1.1 ACUSON S2000 194
8.11.1.2 ACUSON SC2000 194
8.11.1.3 ACUSON X300 195
8.11.1.4 ACUSON P10 195
8.11.1.5 ACUSON S2000 ABVS 196
8.11.1.6 ACUSON Antares 196
8.11.1.7 ACUSON X150 197
8.11.1.8 SONOLINE G20 197
8.12 SonoSite, Inc. 198
8.12.1 SonoSite's Portable Diagnostic Ultrasound Machines 198
8.12.1.1 Nanomaxx 198
8.11.1.2 M-Turbo 198
8.11.1.3 M-OB/GYN Office 199
8.11.1.4 MicroMaxx 199
8.11.2 SonoSite's Mountable Diagnostic Ultrasound Systems 199
8.11.2.1 S-Cath 199
8.11.3 Connectivity 200
8.11.4 SonoSite Workflow Solutions 200
8.11.4.1 SonoSite Workflow Solutions in Emergency Medicine 200
8.11.4.2 SonoSite Workflow Solutions in Critical Care 201
8.11.5 SonoSite DICOM Connectivity 201
8.11.6 SiteLink Software 202
8.11.7 USB Export Options 202
8.11.8 DICOM Export 202
8.11.9 SiteLink Export 203
8.12 Terason Corporation 203
8.12.1 Terason 2000+ 203
8.12.2 Terason t3000 203
8.12.3 Terason t3200 204
8.12.4 Terason echo 204
8.13 Theraclion 205
8.13.1 TH-One 205
8.14 Toshiba America Medical Systems 205
8.14.1 Atrida 205
8.14.2 Aplio XG 206
8.14.3 Aplio MX 206
8.14.4 Viamo 207
8.14.5 Xario XG 207
8.15 Ultrasonix Medical Corporation 207
8.15.1 SonixTouch 208
8.15.2 SonixTablet 208
8.15.3 Sonix OP/SP/MDP 208
8.16 Verathon, Inc. 209
8.16.1 AortaScan AMI 9700 209
8.16.2 BladderScan 210
8.17 Zonare Medical Systems, Inc. 210
8.17.1 z.one ultra Convertible Ultrasound System 210
8.17.2 z.one ultra sp Convertible Ultrasound System 211
8.17.3 z.one mini Convertible Ultrasound System 211


APPENDIX

Appendix 1: Physics of Ultrasound 212
Appendix 1.1: Interaction of Ultrasound with Tissue 212
Appendix 1.1.1: Attenuation 212
Appendix 1.1.2: Reflection 213
Appendix 1.1.3: Acoustic Impedance (Z) 213
Appendix 1.1.4: Refraction 213
Appendix 1.1.5: Diffraction 213
Appendix 1.2.1: Near Field and Focusing 214
Appendix 1.3: Resolution 214
Appendix 1.3.1: Lateral Resolution 214
Appendix 1.3.2: Axial Resolution 215
Appendix 1.3.3: Temporal Resolution 215
Appendix 2: Appendix: Design of Low-Cost Portable Ultrasound Systems 216
Appendix 2.1: Transducer Design 216
Appendix 2.2: Transmit Circuitry Design 218
Appendix 2.3: Receive Circuitry Design 218
Appendix 2.4: Beamforming Algorithms 220
Appendix 2.5: Complete System 221
Appendix 3: Ultrasound System Design Resources and Block Diagram 223
Appendix 4: Block Diagram and Design Considerations for Portable Ultrasound Systems 225
Appendix 5: The Future of Beamforming in Ultrasound 227
Appendix 5.1: Beamforming Architecture 228
Appendix 5.2: Advances in Beamformer Technology 229
Appendix 5.3: The Highly Configurable Beamforming Platform 229
Appendix 5.4: Future Innovations 230
Appendix 6: Current State of the Art of PACS 231
Appendix 6.1: Components and Architecture of PACS 231
Appendix 6.2: Image Acquisition Components 231
Appendix 6.3: PACS Controller 232
Appendix 6.4: Database Server and Archiving System 232
Appendix 6.5: Short-Term Archive 232
Appendix 6.6: Long-Term Archive 232
Appendix 6.7: Workstations 233
Appendix 6.8: Network 234
Appendix 6.9: Communication Protocols 235
Appendix 6.10: DICOM Standard 235
Appendix 6.11: HL7 Standard 235
Appendix 6.12: Other Related Systems 236
Appendix 6.12.1: Hospital Information System (HIS) 236
Appendix 6.12.2: Radiology Information System (RIS) 236
Appendix 6.13: Current PACS Products 236
Appendix 6.13.1: Agfa IMPAX6 236
Appendix 7: Ultrasound Glossary of Medical Terms 238
Appendix 8: China's Foreign Trade Surplus in Medical Devices 245
Appendix 8.1: Chinese Exports of Medical Devices 245
Appendix 8.2: The Top Three Export Markets 245
Appendix 8.3: The U.S. Market 245
Appendix 8.4: The Japanese Market 245
Appendix 8.5: The German Market 246
Appendix 8.6: Chinese Imports 246
Appendix 8.7: Export of Blood Pressure Measuring Instruments 246
Appendix 8.8: Chinese Export of B-Type Ultrasonic Diagnostic Apparatus 246
Appendix 8.9: Chinese Exports of MRI 246
Appendix 8.10: Chinese Exports of Patient Monitors 246
Appendix 8.11: Chinese Exports of Color Ultrasound Systems 246
Appendix 8.12: Chinese Exports of Computed Tomography (CT) 247
Appendix 9: U.S. Export Opportunities for Medical Devices to India 248
Appendix 9.1: Foreign Investment Opportunities 249


INDEX OF FIGURES

Figure 6.1: Global Healthcare Spending, 2010-2020 74
Figure 6.2: U.S. Healthcare Spending, 2009-2019 76
Figure 6.3: Canadian Healthcare Funding by Source, 2010 76
Figure 6.4: Private Funding in Canada by Source, 2010 77
Figure 6.5: Canadian Healthcare Expenditure, 2000-2010 77
Figure 6.6: Canadian Healthcare Spending, 2010 78
Figure 6.7: Canadian Healthcare Spending by Province, 2010 78
Figure 6.8: Projected Healthcare Spending by Percent of GDP in France, 2010-2050 80
Figure 6.9: Healthcare Spending Projection in Germany, 2010-2060 80
Figure 6.10: Healthcare Spending as a Percentage of GDP in U.K., 2000-2009 82
Figure 6.11: Russian Healthcare Spending as a Percentage of GDP, 2008-2020 83
Figure 6.12: Healthcare Spending in India, 2010-2017 85
Figure 6.13: Global Market for Medical Imaging Equipment by Geography, 2010 86
Figure 6.14: Global Medical Imaging Market Share by Modality, 2010 87
Figure 6.15: Global Market for General X-rays, 2010-2017 88
Figure 6.16: Global MRI Market Share by Geography, 2010 89
Figure 6.17: Global Market for MRI, 2010-2017 89
Figure 6.18: Global Market for CT, 2010-2017 90
Figure 7.1: Ultrasound: The Second Most Popular Imaging Modality 94
Figure 7.2: Share of Global Market in Ultrasound Imaging by Vendor, 2010 95
Figure 7.3: Ultrasound Imaging Share in Developed Markets by Vendor, 2010 96
Figure 7.4: Ultrasound Imaging Share in Emerging Markets by Vendor, 2010 97
Figure 7.5: Global Market for Ultrasound Imaging Systems, Accessories and Services, 2006-2010 97
Figure 7.6: Global Market for Ultrasound Imaging Equipment, 2010-2017 98
Figure 7.7: The Dominant Areas of Ultrasound Application, 2010 99
Figure 7.8: Global Market for Hand-Carried Ultrasound (HCU) Systems, 2010-2017 99
Figure 7.9: Trends in Modality Use in Emergency Departments 102
Figure 7.10: Accrued New Studies per 1,000 Patients 103
Figure 7.11: U.S. Market for Portable Ultrasound, 2010-2017 105
Figure 7.12: Distribution of Diagnostic Imaging Examinations in Canadian Hospitals, 2009 108
Figure 7.13: Canadian Imaging Equipment Market Share by Vendor, 2010 109
Figure 7.14: Share of Ultrasound Market in Canada, 2008-2015 110
Figure 7.15: European Market for Ultrasound Imaging Systems, 2010-2017 111
Figure 7.16: Chinese Market for Ultrasound Systems, 2010-2017 113
Figure 7.17: Value-Wise Indian Ultrasound Equipment Market, 2010 122
Figure 7.18: Unit-Wise Indian Ultrasound Equipment Market, 2010 122
Figure 7.19: Value-Wise Indian Market for Black' White Ultrasound Equipment, 2010 123
Figure 7.20: Unit-Wise Indian Market for Color Doppler Equipment, 2010 123
Figure 7.21: Unit-Wise Black' White Ultrasound Equipment Market in India, 2010 124
Figure 7.22: Indian Ultrasound Equipment Market, 2010-2017 125
Figure 7.23: Global Overall Market for Contrast Agents in Medical Imaging, 2010-2017 140
Figure 7.24: Global Market for PACS, 2010-2016 144
Figure 7.25: Number of U.S. Hospitals with PACS Installed 144
Figure 7.26: Total Number of U.S. Hospitals vs. Hospitals with PACS Installed 145
Figure 7.27: PACS Replacement and New Purchases 146
Figure 7.28: PACS Modality Installations 146
Figure 7.29: PACS Vendor Market Share 147
Figure 7.30: PACS Image Distribution in Hospital Departments 148
Figure 7.31: PACS Images Accessibility by Physician 149
Figure 7.32: RIS and PACS Interface 150
Figure 7.33: European PACS Market, 2010-2016 150
Figure 7.34: RIS/PACS Market in India 152
Figure 7.35: Total PACS Market in India 152
Figure App. 2.1: Diagram of the Through Hole Electrical Connections Used by Eames et al. 217
Figure App. 2.2: Diagram of a CMUT 217
Figure App. 2.3: Block Diagram of the Circuitry used by Lewis et al. to Provide low output impedance 218
Figure App. 2.4: Block Diagram of the Sonic Window by Fuller et al. 219
Figure App. 2.5: Schematic of the Single Stage Preamplifier Used by Fuller et al. 219
Figure App. 2.6: Diagram of the Delta-Sigma Oversampled Beamformer 220
Figure App. 2.7: Diagram of the Direct Sampled I/Q Beamforming Algorithm 221
Figure App. 2.8: Diagram of the Transmit Protection Circuitry as Described by Fuller et al. 222
Figure App. 9.1: Indian Imports of Medical Devices by Exporting Countries, 2008 248
Figure App. 9.2: U.S. Trade Surplus with India in Medical Goods, 2005-2009 249

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